Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Sociology of Gender

The Sociology of Gender The sociology of gender is one of the largest subfields within sociology  and features theory and research that critically interrogates the social construction of gender, how gender interacts with other social forces in society, and how gender relates to social structure overall. Sociologists within this subfield study a wide range of topics with a variety of research methods, including things like identity, social interaction, power and oppression, and the interaction of gender with other things like race, class, culture, religion, and sexuality, among others. The Difference Between Sex and Gender To understand the sociology of gender one must first understand how sociologists define gender and sex. Though male/female and man/woman are often conflated in the English language, they actually refer to two very different things: sex and gender. The former, sex, is understood by sociologists to be a biological categorization based on reproductive organs. Most people fall into the categories of male and female, however, some people are born with sex organs that do not clearly fit either category, and they are known as intersex. Either way, sex is a biological classification based on body parts. Gender, on the other hand, is a  social  classification based on ones identity, presentation of self, behavior, and interaction with others. Sociologists view gender as learned behavior and a culturally produced identity, and as such, it is a social category. The Social Construction of Gender That gender is a social construct becomes especially apparent when one compares how men and women behave across different cultures, and how in some cultures and societies, other genders exist too. In Western industrialized nations like the U.S., people tend to think of masculinity and femininity in dichotomous terms, viewing men and women as distinctly different and opposites. Other cultures, however, challenge this assumption and have less distinct views of masculinity and femininity. For example, historically there was a category of people in the Navajo culture called berdaches, who were anatomically normal men but who were defined as a third gender considered to fall between male and female. Berdaches married other ordinary men (not Berdaches), although neither was considered homosexual, as they would be in today’s Western culture. What this suggests is that we learn gender through the process of socialization. For many people, this process begins before they are even born, with parents selecting gendered names on the basis of the sex of a fetus, and by decorating the incoming babys room and selecting its toys and clothes in color-coded and gendered ways that reflect cultural expectations and stereotypes. Then, from infancy on, we are socialized by family, educators, religious leaders, peer groups, and the wider community, who teach us what is expected from us in terms of appearance and behavior based on whether they code us as a boy or a girl. Media and popular culture play important roles in teaching us gender too. One result of gender socialization is the formation of gender identity, which is one’s definition of oneself as a man or woman. Gender identity shapes how we think about others and ourselves and also influences our behaviors. For example, gender differences exist in the likelihood of drug and alcohol abuse, violent behavior, depression, and aggressive driving. Gender identity also has an especially strong effect on how we dress and present ourselves, and what we want our bodies to look like, as measured by normative standards. Major Sociological Theories of Gender Each major sociological framework has its own views and theories regarding gender and how it relates to other aspects of society. During the mid-twentieth century, functionalist theorists argued that men filled instrumental roles in society while women filled  expressive roles, which worked to the benefit of society. They viewed a gendered division of labor as important and necessary for the smooth functioning of a modern society. Further, this perspective suggests that our socialization into prescribed roles drives gender inequality by encouraging men and women to make different choices about family and work. For example, these theorists see wage inequalities as the result of choices women make, assuming they choose family roles that compete with their work roles, which renders them less valuable employees from the managerial standpoint. However, most sociologists now view this functionalist approach as outdated and sexist, and there is now plenty of scientific evidence to suggest that the wage gap is influenced by deeply ingrained gender biases rather than by choices men and women make about family-work balance. A popular and contemporary approach within the sociology of gender is influenced by symbolic interactionist  theory, which focuses on the micro-level everyday interactions that produce and challenge gender as we know it. Sociologists West and Zimmerman popularized this approach with their 1987 article on doing gender, which illustrated how gender is something that is produced through interaction between people, and as such is an interactional accomplishment. This approach highlights the instability and fluidity of gender and recognizes that since it is produced by people through interaction, it is fundamentally changeable. Within the sociology of gender, those inspired by conflict theory focus on how gender and assumptions and biases about gender differences lead to the empowerment of men, oppression of women, and the structural inequality of women relative to men. These sociologists see gendered power dynamics as built into the social structure, and thus manifested throughout all aspects of a patriarchal society. For example, from this viewpoint, wage inequalities that exist between men and women result from men’s historic power to devalue women’s work and benefit as a group from the services that women’s labor provides. Feminist theorists,  building on aspects of the three areas of theory described above, focus on the structural forces, values, world views, norms, and everyday behaviors that create inequality and injustice on the basis of gender. Importantly, they also focus on how these social forces can be changed to create a just and equal society in which no one is penalized for their gender. Updated by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

The effects of globalisation on an organisation Dissertation

The effects of globalisation on an organisation - Dissertation Example 3 1.3 Project Objectives 6 1.4Research Questions 6 Information Gathering and Accounting/Business Techniques 7 2.0. Information Sources 7 2.1.2 Annual Reports, Summary Financial Statements and Corporate Governance Report 8 2.1.3 Textbooks 8 2.1.4 Internet and Media Sources 9 2.2 Research Methodology 9 2.3 SWOT and PESTLE Analysis 14 2.3.1 Limitations 14 2.4 Ethical Issues 15 Results, Analysis, Conclusions and Recommendations 16 3.0 Results 16 3.1 SWOT Analysis 21 3.2 PESTLE Analysis 25 3.3 Financial Ratio Analysis 27 Conclusion/Recommendations 29 Figure 1 30 List of References 40 Research and Analysis Report The Effects of Globalization on Cadbury Schweppes Plc. Part 1 Project Objectives and Overall Research Approach In terms of business practices, globalization refers to the escalation of the â€Å"internationalization of the production, distribution and marketing of goods and services† (Ali 2000, p. 5). More particularly, globalization is the persistent linking of state econo mies (Ali 2000, p. 5). From the perspective of the business organization, globalization means intense competition which can impact the structure of the organization and the way that it produces and markets its goods and services(Czinkota et al 2009). ... From the consumer’s perspective, globalization means an opportunity to choose from a large assortment of goods and services. This also means that in addition to variety, consumers will benefit from a reduction in prices and an improvement in quality. Cadbury Schweppes Plc provides a case study for the effects of globalization on an organization and the responses that an organization is forced to make. The effect of globalization on an organization as a topic for this research and analysis report is justified because globalization changes the way that businesses operate, strategize and market their products and services. All businesses are either passively or actively impacted by globalization (Johnson and Turner 2010). This means that all businesses are forced to reconsider their focus on domestic markets and focus more on foreign markets. The extent of this focus varies from one organization to another. Size, growth, ambitions, brands, opportunities and a number of variables will dictate the degree an organization shifts it focus to penetration of foreign markets. The relevant factors are demonstrated via a case study of Cadbury. The growth directions of Cadbury’s since its inception 200 years ago justifies an evaluation of the impact of globalization on the organization. As we have already discovered, Cadbury’s started out as a coffee shop of sorts and today it is an entirely different company. It went from serving ready to make drinks to manufacturing chocolates. This research intends to discover the extent to which globalization impacted the expansion of products and how those products have been marketed globally. This research will therefore look at Cadbury’s progression on global markets over

Monday, February 10, 2020

Compare and contrast absorption costing Assignment

Compare and contrast absorption costing - Assignment Example Absorption costing and Marginal costing are two such costing methods. They differ to quite an extent, however whether one method is better than the other depends largely on the situations in which they are applied and the underlying objectives of the businesses in which they are applied. Before looking at these two concepts in detail, it is appropriate to discuss the components that make up the ultimate cost of a good or service. The cost of something can be broadly broken up into fixed costs and variable costs.   Fixed costs are those costs that are incurred irrespective of the level of production. So for example, in a garment factory business, fixed costs would include the rent on the factory. This rent would largely be the same, irrespective of the volume of garments produced in that factory. On the other hand, the variable costs would include the costs of the materials used (‘direct material’), the daily wages of the staff producing the garments (‘direct labour’) and even perhaps the electricity charges on the machines used (‘direct variable overheads’). These costs increase directly with the volume of production. More garments being produced would mean more fabric being used, more people being employed or the same people being employed for longer and machines using more electricity by being worked for longer or at higher capacities. This method is also called the full costing method. As the terminology implies, under this method, the full cost of the good or service is used in arriving at the cost per unit. ‘Full costs’ mean that both the variable costs and the fixed costs are included in the calculation of cost per unit. That is, this method does not differentiate between them-all the manufacturing costs are included. In the garment factory example mentioned above, this would mean that in addition to

Friday, January 31, 2020

Cultural Differences in Business Essay Example for Free

Cultural Differences in Business Essay I have read a lot about the cultural differences between Asia and the United States. I have talked to some of my Asian acquaintances here in Okinawa. There are quite a few cultural differences in the business worlds in Hong Kong and the States. In the states, employees have stronger feelings about and opinions of the intrinsic contracts of a business. The employees inner images come into play with these feelings because they feel that if they have a good and strong inner image then the outer image will automatically be a good one. They feel that extrinsic contracts are not as important, but still an issue when it comes to business. Employees in the United States are not as respectful to management and will even argue if they feel they have a strong point. In some cases this may be a good thing. In the United States we tend to be more aggressive and have strong opinions rather than suggestions. In Hong Kong, they believe that extrinsic contracts are everything. They believe as long as they have a strong front and image then there business will succeed. This is a good thing when it comes to public images because if you look like you have a strong business then the public will not know any different. Intrinsic contracts are not a main concern in Hong Kong. They are pushed to the side until they have a strong front and then it may be worked on.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Individuals That Contributed To The Civil War Essay -- essays papers

Individuals That Contributed To The Civil War The Civil War was brought about by many important people, some that wanted to preserve and some that wanted to eradicate the primary cause of the war, slavery. There were the political giants, such as Abraham Lincoln, and Stephen Douglas. There were seditious abolitionists such as John Brown, escaped slaves such as Dred Scott, and abolitionist writers like Harriet Beecher Stowe. These were the people who, ultimately, brought a beginning to the end of what Lincoln called â€Å"a moral, a social, and a political wrong†(Oates 66). Southern states, including the 11 states that formed the Confederacy, depended on slavery to support their economy. Southerners used slave labor to produce crops, especially cotton. Although slavery was illegal in the Northern states, only a small proportion of Northerners actively opposed it. The main debate between the North and the South on the eve of the war was whether slavery should be permitted in the Western territories recently acquired during the Mexican war, which included New Mexico, part of California, and Utah. â€Å"Opponents of slavery were concerned about its expansion, in part because they did not want to compete against slave labor†(Oates 15). In 1851, a literary event startled the country. Harriet Beecher Stowe, an American writer and abolitionist, wrote an antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, that was published serially in a newspaper and in book form in 1852. â€Å"It was a forceful indictment of slavery and one of the most powerful novels of its kind in American literature. The success of the book was unprecedented, selling 500,000 copies in the United States alone within five years, and it was translated into more than 20 foreign languages†(Oates 29). It was widely read in the States and abroad, and moved many to join the cause of abolition. The South indignantly denied this indictment of slavery. â€Å"Stowe’s book increased partisan feeling over slavery and intensified sectional differences. It did much to solidify militant antislavery attitude in the North, and therefore was an important factor in the start of the American Civil War†(Oates 31). In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and stated that each territory could be admitted as a state â€Å"with... ... Instead they joined the lower South with the secession of Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. This secession by the South lead to the opening to the American Civil War. The war over slavery was brought about by many important people, who used many different ways to express their points of view. Some exhibited their dissatisfaction with slavery by debating, some by using violence, some by suing in court, and some by writing a story. These were all effective strikes against the South, and primary causes of the war. In conclusion, these people ultimately brought a beginning to the end of what Lincoln called, â€Å"a moral, a social, and a political wrong†(Oates 66). Bibliography Bradford, Ned. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Appleton-Century Inc., New York. 1956. Oates, Stephen B. The Whirlwind of War. Harper Collins Publishers, New York. 1998. Woodworth, Steven E. Davis and Lee at War. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1995. â€Å"Emancipation Proclamation†. html â€Å"Jefferson Davis to Congress of the Confederate States†.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Launching Strategy Essay

Purpose: Alpen Bank is facing potential growth opportunities in terms of launching a credit card to the Romanian market. The overall goal is to increase annual profit by â‚ ¬5 million within two years of launch. Selection of the right target audience, while applying the appropriate launching strategy is the direction of our focus. Our goal is to extend the Alpen Bank premium service to customers via a new product market. Predictions of economic growth in Romania, proves that the market is growing increasingly ripe for credit cards. Therefore, the issue is not whether or not Alpine Bank should launch a credit card in Romania. The concern of Alpine Bank should be when to launch said services in Romania. Current models, statistics, and research are conclusive; the time to invest in Romania is now. Position Statement: The recommendation standing and supported by enclosed financial statements are as follows: Launching a credit card in the Romanian market would meet the stated purpose by targeting the affluent and most affluent audience (Exhibit 1). The marketing approach will consist of direct sales in conjunction with branch cross selling (Exhibit 2). Also the use of magazine and television advertising strategies will enhance our position. This approach will add support for the recommendation of taking advantage of a primarily non-penetrated market. Reason: The opportunity to invest in the Romanian credit card market yields potential revenue growth, along with increasing the life time value of each customer, new and existing. With Romania entering the European Union, Alpen Bank has been prompted to re-visit its previous credit card approach in the emerging economy. Additionally, there has been an increase in luxury products and purchases, displaying increased consumer purchasing power, a potential indicator of an increased interest in credit card. Furthermore, Romania is in a transition period, with cards gaining favorability over cash payments. Alpen Bank hopes to build upon prior methods explored in Romania by competing banks in penetrating the credit card market. Decision Options (Exhibit 6): 1.Launch a credit card in Romania. 2.Do not launch a credit card in Romania. Decision Option 1 a.Add a new market: Alpen Bank can continue its successful venture in Romania by adding a credit card to its portfolio. This will foster a continuing growth in an increasingly affluent Romanian upper class. As purchasing power is determined by income level and accumulated wealth, the affluent class is more able than the middle class to make purchases on credit. b.Increase revenue: Current models and predictions indicate a strong opportunity to significantly increase the yearly revenue by investing in the credit card market. Calculations display how the venture will increase the life time value of each customer, ensuring future growth. (Exhibit 1) Decision Option 2 a.Focus on existing markets: Venturing into the credit card market could draw resources away from core Alpen Banking services already in effect for the Romanian market. b.Assure no potential risk: All investments come with inherent risks. By investing substantially into an exploratory market, Alpen Bank is running the risk of not meeting the expected outcome. The potential monetary risk could run into the millions of dollars, along with an incalculable risk to reputation. How to measure Decision Option 1 a.Establish a customer base with the affluent and most affluent: By building upon the currently excising clientele, along with attracting untapped segments of the prosperous Romanian upper class. By comparing the actual number of clients utilizing the Alpen Bank credit card with the models and predictions made pre-credit card launch. (Exhibit 4) b.Increasing revenue from the credit card launch: Expected revenue from the credit card enterprise is projected to be â‚ ¬6,698,391 within two years (Exhibit 2). By updating current calculation models with on-going information as the enterprise proceeds allows for ongoing monitoring of predicted return on investment. The lifetime value of customers will also be assessed on a yearly basis, predicting the value of loyal, long term users of credit cards. How to measure Decision Option 2 a.Projecting further growth without credit card. Venturing into the Romanian credit card market taps resources away from current banking business. Investments could also be put to use in other areas, such as higher frequency of branches opening or improving services currently offered. b.Customer awareness of the bank’s premium brand: By investing in already offered business services. Alpine Bank is committed to improving our superior line of service currently offered to the Romanian clientele. Critique of Decision Options 1 Per limitations of senior management, the investment into the Romanian credit card market must prove itself profitable within two years, yielding at least five million euro. Investing in developing a profitable line of credit cards comes with several risk factors. Predictions of profit could be erroneous, leading to a less than expected return on investments. This in turn could lead to revocable and irrevocable damage to reputation, potentially resulting in a net loss of customer over short and long term. Projections of the positive effects of Romania’s’ recent acceptance into the European Union could also be incorrect. By investing time and energy into a new business venture, current banking services could suffer from subconscious neglect by employees involved in both enterprises. Critique of Decision Option 2 A decision not to invest in the Romanian credit card market will be a hinder of growth. Currently, competing banks are investing and have invested in the growing credit card market. By delaying a venture, Alpen Bank is permitting competitors to gain establishment and credit market branding. Alpen Bank currently holds the potential necessary for a successful venture into the credit card market. By failing to employ said resources, Alpine Bank is neglecting talent and opportunity, which could lead to failure in expected profitability. Being accepted into European Union brings increasing prospect of higher return on investments in the credit card market. By choosing to stay out of the market, Alpine Bank is also forcing excising customers to other banks for credit card services. As experienced in other emerging markets in developing countries, credit card customers are less likely to switch from one credit card to another. Therefore, failing to introduce a line of credit cards now will make it increasingly difficult to attract customers when Alpen Bank eventually starts its credit card venture. Action plan: Goals: †¢Launch a credit card †¢Reach the affluent and most affluent †¢Launch marketing and adverting that appeals to our audience Action Steps: Short term †¢Marketing Plan: Release a Premium Marketing Plan that is focused, achievable, compelling, and simple. As evident by exhibit 1, the chosen target group is the affluent and most affluent segments of the Romanian population. By ensuring a proper understanding of the dynamic characterizing the targeted demographic, we are able to construct the appropriate marketing plan. This will instill the programs, tactics, incentives, and budgets necessary for a strong image and a consistent message reaching the targeted customers. †¢Marketing: Investing in direct sales and branch cross-selling holds the highest effective rate of potential customers reached. These two methods also have the lowest cost per customer. Combined they ensure the most effective tactic in recruiting customers to Alpen Bank’s credit card. (Exhibit 2) †¢Advertising: Magazine and television advertisements. Our advertising goal is to capture the attention of perspective applicants as well as converting prospects involved with other credit card venues. Establishing a clear message for the audience is essential in launching advertising Alpen Bank’s advertising campaign. â€Å"A premium clientele deserves a premium banking experience.† The launch of the campaign considers the sophisticated, vernacular culture of our Romanian clientele. The goal is to assure the same quality experience in our established bank while adding an innovative credit card product to allocate more options for our clientele. -Magazine advertisements could feature admired Romanian model Diana Dondoe, to highlight Alpen Bank’s image of being an upscale and exclusive provider of banking services. -Television advertisements could consist of 30 second runs of a Romanian couple being picked up by their driver and dropped off at the premier launch of the credit card. These are some alternatives in order to illustrate how the product could be marketed. †¢Launch of promotional events by the Alpen Bank’s public relations department. Evening events could be held at elegant local venues for charitable fundraising purposes. Long term †¢Continuing growth in the Romanian market, with special focus on the credit card market. †¢Attracting customers to Alpen Bank by focusing on its premium image and superior services. †¢Expansion in the credit card market, to have established a customer base of 200,000 customers five years following initial launch. †¢As the Romanian economy is growing, the percentage of population with a disposable income is increasing. Alpen Bank will focus on attracting new members of the affluent segment of the population. †¢Increase the lifetime value of each customer, by further expansion of the financial services offered. †¢Increase credit card utilization by informing clientele of benefits associated with credit card purchases, along with temporary potential incentives offered in order to change consumer habits. Risk and Countermeasures †¢The chosen target demographic of affluent and most affluent Romanians could prove itself too limited for effective penetration. However, as the Romanian economy is growing, the targeted demographic is also expected to expand in size. Therefore, even if the current market niche is too limited, it is expected to grow substantially over the next two to three years. †¢The expected profit of five million could not be achieved within the timeframe of two years. As limitations set by senior management calls for a substantial profit to be made within a relatively short amount of time, there is a risk of the time restraints not being met. Yet these restrictions add a clear vision, enabling a structured approach in order to meet the expected outcome within the set timeframe. Final recommendation and conclusion By venturing into the Romanian credit card market, Alpen Bank is capitalizing on a ripe product opportunity. Current predictions and models consistently indicate that by pursuing the recommended strategy, Alpen Bank will see profits grow by a minimum of â‚ ¬6.6 million over two years. Romania’s recent acceptance into the European Union, accompanied with an increase in purchasing power among the affluent fragment of the population will ensure a substantial return on investment. (Exhibit 4, 5)

Monday, January 6, 2020

Small and Medium Sized Scale Enterprise (SMEs) Finance...

1.Introduction Small and medium sized scale enterprise ( SMEs ) occupies the crucial position among the worldwide economic activities, particularly in developing country, whose flourish has already became a sign of the rapid development of economy. However, more than half SMEs face the severe challenges of surviving. Among all the possible threats during business activities, inadequate access to capital is the most important factor to determine the enterprise’s destiny (CCH, Australia, 2013). Even worse, SMEs are under the tremendous stress of the financial and economic crises which lead to the depressed consumer market, contractive loan of financial institutions. Given the important place of SMEs in world economy and the worsening global†¦show more content†¦Because of its flexibility and spontaneity, which helps angel investment becomes the favorable financial assistant for technology-oriented SMEs. The practice in many countries indicates that fund rising in hi-tech industry companies mainly rely on angel investment instead of formal capital market at their preliminary stage. The involvement of angel investor would mean that venture capitalists and bankers are highly likely put more investments or loans into company’s future development. The â€Å"stepping-stone† effect of angel investment has worked on numerous famous international companies nowadays, including Apple, Amazon, Ford, etc. Steve Jobs and his copartner Stephen Wozniak received the investment from Mike Markkula (American entrepreneur and angel investor) to manufacture the Apple II personal computer they had developed in 1977. It is because the one million dollar’s angel capital, that helps Apple to build the rock solid foundation for the future success. Mezzanine Finance Mezzanine finance is often being seen as a combination of both debt finance and equity finance, whose risk level is between debt financing and venture investment. When mezzanine finance providers lend money to the company who has financing need, they will also seek to share in growth by building an element of equity investment into the deal (Williams, 2013). The advantage of mezzanine finance is obvious: friendly cash flow. This is attractive to borrowers when they are frustrated about theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Small And Medium Sized Firms5763 Words   |  24 PagesENTREPRENEURSHIP; Analysis of small and medium sized firms (Small and medium scale enterprises: SMES) By Daniel Abioye, INTRODUCTION Small and medium sized firms play a prominent role in economic development (Osotimehi, et al. 2012). Hence it has been the underlining background to this study. The importance of SMES cannot be overemphasized in an economy. 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